Energy and Water Use for Processing by Horticultural Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

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Linda M. Obiero
Abong George
Okoth Michael Wandayi
John Nzioka Muthama


Energy Use Efficiency; Water Use Efficiency; Legal and Regulatory framework; Horticultural processing; MSMEs


Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) account for over 99% of companies and about 60% of employment opportunities can be attributed to them in most countries globally.  MSMEs uses energy and water intensively, is a major driver in the economy with respect to innovations, Gross Domestic Product, investments as well as exports.  Despite MSMEs key role in the economy, they have not been the focus in the energy and water policy actions of the majority of countries in spite of their intensive usage of energy and water for horticultural processing.   Thus, to address this gap the paper undertook a systematic literature review of energy and water for horticultural processing.  Out of the 486 articles retrieved from the various databases, 18 publications met the inclusion criteria. From the literature synthesis, it’s evident that energy conservation opportunities lie in the use of renewable energy.  The food processing sector globally utilizes 200 exajoules of energy annually. This consumption causes decreasing resources and large levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Processing operations consume 78% of the water supplied to a processing plant. The study recommends the utilization of the best available technologies so as to ensure energy and water use efficiency. Efficient use of energy and water by MSMEs is largely dependent on a country’s legal and regulatory framework.

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