Ethical approval and consent

It is mandatory to get approval from a relevant registered ethics committee from the country where the study is being undertaken before the commencement of the study.

The authors need to obtain and document signed informed consent from all the study participants where the research involves obtaining data or samples from human subjects or animals. For studies involving either human patients, the consent must commit on protection of patients' personal identity. For all other human-related data, the consent must commit to maintain confidentiality of the individual data (e.g., socioeconomic status). In addition, the consent forms must include peoples’ rights to a language they clearly understand. Where applicable, The Editorial Board may request for documented proof of the consent form used by the researchers.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in a declaration of interest statement in the manuscript. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'.