East African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation (EAJSTI)

Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to us. These instructions will ensure that we have everything required so that your paper if deemed fit, can move through peer review, production, and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your paper matches the journal's requirements. For general guidance on the publication process of the EAJSTI click here.

 Aim and Scope of the EAJSTI

The aim of EAJSTI is to enhance, advance, and disseminate scientific, technological, and innovative knowledge that supports East African regional development. 

The thematic areas encompassed by the Journal include Agriculture, Food Security and Rural Development; Natural Resources and Environmental Management; Health and Wellbeing Science; Infrastructure; Energy and Industrialization Development; Information and Communication Technology; and, Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The Journal accepts original submissions throughout the year; the submissions packaged based on guidelines of the journal could be original research, review articles, opinion papers, editorials, mini-reviews, book reviews, short communications, scientific notes/ memoirs, new patents, announcements and reports of meetings, as well as tributes of prominent scientists.  Regular issues of the Journal will often contain a review article on a critical or rapidly developing area of STI, which is normally submitted at the invitation by the Editor-in-Chief on behalf of the Editorial Board. Handling Editors review all manuscripts prior to publication; however, the Editor-in-Chief or Associate Editor reserves the right of final decision. The Journal is published quarterly online; and uses the Open Online Journal System to receive submissions, and manage all editorial office processes including peer review, and correspondence to potentials authors and reviewers.  

 While the East African Science and Technology Commission (EASTECOis the proprietor of the East African Journal of Science, Technology & Innovationthe journal pursues its own independent editorial policy.

EAJSTI considers all types of manuscripts on the strict condition that:

  • The manuscript is your own original work, and does not duplicate any other previously published results including your own previously published work.
  • The manuscript has been submitted only to the East African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation; it is not under consideration or peer review or accepted for publication or in the press or published elsewhere.

By submitting your manuscript to East African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation you are agreeing to any necessary originality checks your manuscript may have to undergo during the preliminary assessment, peer-review, and production processes. Any manuscript which fails to adhere to the above conditions shall not be considered.

All submitted manuscripts are subject to initial appraisal by the Editorial Office, and, are only subjected to peer-review by independent, anonymous expert referees if found suitable. EAJSTI follows the policy of the double-blind review system. However, single-blind might be in exceptional cases.

For information regarding anonymous peer review, please see: click here
Please note that all papers accepted for this journal are subject to originality checking, including the use of the Plagiarism Checker. To avoid potential problems, please ensure that your submission has a Similarity Index of less than 25 % and that all citations are fully disclosed at the point of submission.

Submitting an article

Papers for consideration should be submitted via the Online Journal System (OJS) available from the journal website (Make a submission) once you have read the preparation guidelines below. New users should first create an account. Once logged on to the site, submissions should be made via the Author Main Menu. Click here for information on submission procedures.

The manuscript to be submitted should be prepared as double-spaced in Times New Roman Font 12.  It should be approx. 8,000 words in length (excluding notes, figures, tables, and references). Tables and Figures should be placed at the end of the text.

The submission on the online platform should be guided by the instruction in the submission window. Within the journal homepage, click on ‘Make a new submission’ and follow through the 5-step process (1.Start; 2. Upload Submission; 3. Enter Metadata; 4. Confirmation; and 5. Next Steps).

Authors will be required to pay a publication fee of $100 upon acceptance of their manuscript for publication.

Manuscript preparation

When submitting a paper to EAJSTIthe senior author must ensure that the work has not been previously published, is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and has been approved for submission by all its listed co-authors and the institution(s) in which the work was conducted. If the paper is accepted for publication, all authors will transfer copyright of their article to the publisher, after which the publication becomes the property of the EAJSTI. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain copyright permission to reproduce tables or figures published elsewhere and to ensure the correctness of all references.

Technical and Nomenclature Standards

  • All measurements must be stated in SI units.
  • Nomenclature. All organisms should be identified by their Latin names, with taxonomic affiliation and authority indicated at first mention in the abstract and text. Common names should be stated where appropriate. (Consult the Entomological Society of America's list.) Chemical substances should be described by their generic or common names and defined at least once in the paper by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name. For editorial guidelines, consult a recent issue of the journal or the Council of Biology Editors’ Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th Edition, 1994.


Papers (including abstracts) are published in English. We suggest that authors whose first language is not English should have their manuscripts checked by a proficient English speaker before submission or by a third party editorial service. This is optional but will help to ensure that any submissions that reach peer review can be judged on academic merit alone. Please note that the use of language editing services is voluntary and at the author’s own expense.


Plagiarism is unacceptable. If detected, the EAJSTI will decline to process the submission. The similarity index acceptable is 25%

Data Treatment

Means should be reported in the same, or not more than one extra, number of digits as the original individual values. A measure of variability (standard deviation or standard error) should always be presented along with mean values in tabular or graphical forms. When the expression X ± A is used, always indicate whether A is variance, standard deviation, or standard error. It is essential to indicate the sample size or a number of replications in tables of means, correlations, and other statistical test results. Whenever the value of a test statistic (e.g. F, T, or Chi-square) is presented, the associated degrees of freedom and probability value should be indicated. Standard error values should accompany the estimates of model parameters (e.g. regression slope). Mathematical expressions should be carefully written, algebraic symbols should be written in italics, while suffixes and operators [e.g. f(x), log, exp] should be written in the roman typeface. If there are many equations, a number in parentheses should identify each, flush to the right. Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) is NOT acceptable for the separation of means. If necessary, consult a qualified biometrician for an adequate analysis of your data. References for the method used should be included under Materials and Methods.

Manuscript Content

Manuscripts should be prepared according to the following guidelines:

  • The title page should include the article title and the full name(s) and address (es) of all authors, indicating the author to whom correspondence should be addressed. The fax, telephone, and e-mail contact of the corresponding author should also be provided. A running title of a maximum of 50 characters should be included.
  • The abstract should be 250 – 300 words and include a brief statement of the objectives of the study, the methodology used, and the overall results and conclusions.
  • Keywords: List 5-7 keywords covered in the paper, including the scientific names of the major organisms studied and any important chemical compounds.
  • Main text: The main text should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, and References. 
  • The Journal uses the American Psychological Association (APA) reference style. For more information Only articles that have been published or are ‘in press’ (accepted for publication) should be included.

Figures and illustrations file size:

  • File sizes should be as small as possible, to ensure that users can download them quickly.
  • The authors should limit the number of files to under ten, with a total size not normally exceeding 3 MB. Sound/movie files may be up to 10 MB per file; color PDFs may be up to 5 MB per file; all other general file types may be up to 2 MB per file, but most files should be much smaller.
  • EAJSTI recommends the following artwork files: the Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) for line art and color/halftone images and Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) for vector graphics such as charts and graphs. Authors who have created their files using Adobe Illustrator or Adobe Photoshop should provide their files in these native file formats.


Tables should be numbered consecutively and typed in double-spacing and included at the end of the paper. Table titles should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. Non-standard units of measurement should be defined in the footnotes to the tables (See guidelines for reporting statistical data, above) and at first mention in the text. The authors are requested to ‘insert’ tables to be able to format the quantities into separate cells.

Supplementary Material

Reasons for Supplying Supplementary Material: There will normally be one of the following reasons for you to be supplying supplementary material to accompany the online version of your article:

  1. You wish to link to additional information, which due to its nature, does not lend itself to print media (examples- full data sets, movie or sounds files, etc.)
  2. The Editor of the Journal has requested that you extract certain information from the original article in order to allow for space constraints of the print version.
  3. You have requested additional material to be available to accompany an article that does not normally allow such material to be included (example – tables to accompany a correspondence article).

N.B: Please note that no copyediting or quality assurance measures will be undertaken on supplementary material (other than to ensure that the file is intact). The authors, therefore, warrant that the supplementary material that they submit is in a suitable format for publication in this manner. The material shall be published online in exactly the form that it is supplied.

Submission of Supplementary Material: Please follow the following instructions to supply supplementary material to accompany the online version of your article:

  1. Each supplementary file must be supplied as a separate file.
  2. Each supplementary file must have a clear title (e.g., Supplementary Figure 1).
  • Provide a text summary for each file of no more than 50 words. The summary should describe the contents of the file. Descriptions of individual figures or tables should be provided if these items are submitted as separate files. If a group of figures is submitted together in one file, the description should indicate how many figures are contained within the file and provide a general description of what the figures collectively show.
  1. The file type and file size in parentheses.
  2. Ensure that each piece of supplementary material is clearly referred to at least once in the print version of the paper at an appropriate point in the text, and is also listed at the end of the paper before the reference section.
  3. You may provide a list of reviewers you wish to review your manuscript
  4. Mention the theme under which your article falls.


Online submission. All manuscripts should be submitted via the OJS online manuscript submission system, at Authors can upload their files and check on the status of their manuscripts during the review process.

Manuscripts. Papers should be submitted for publication, preferably in Microsoft Word (.doc), Plain ASCII text (.txt), Rich Text Format (.rtf), WordPerfect document (.wpd), typed and double spaced (including abstracts, tables, and figure legends) with 3 cm margins on right and left sides and printed in a legible font such as Times. All pages of the manuscript should be numbered. For initial submissions, authors can opt to upload the manuscript text files with the tables and figures typed on separate pages to follow the references. The initial submission (manuscript) shall exclude authors and their affiliations. The authors and their affiliations shall be entered under the metadata section ( Add Contributor) in the system.

Audio, video, animation and other general digital media formats for optional supplementary material: We accept files in any of the following formats for other material (if in doubt please enquire first): HTML document (.htm), MS Excel spreadsheet (.xls), GIF image (.gif), QuickTime movie (.mov), MPEG/MPG animation (.mpg).For submissions of revised manuscripts, authors should upload the manuscript file, individual figure files, and optional Supplementary files and videos as separate files.



Proofs. Once typeset, you will receive page proofs by email as a PDF file. It is the author's responsibility to keep the publisher informed of the change of e-mail address, to check e-mails regularly, and to have the software to receive files in PDF format. (You will need to have Acrobat Reader installed; freely available from You will be asked to detail your corrections directly in the PDF using e-annotation. You should avoid substantial changes to the text.

Reprints and page charges. EAJSTI will supply each corresponding author of an article with a final PDF file of his or her article free of charge.

Copyright: Papers are accepted on the understanding that the work has been submitted exclusively to the journal and has not been previously published.


Authors submitting manuscripts for publication should make a copy of this checklist and submit it with their manuscripts. This will ensure that their MS is in the correct format and should make for more rapid processing and publication.


  • Files exclusively submitted via Journal’s homepage, with copies backed up by the author.
  • Pages numbered throughout.
  • Separate pages for references, tables, and figure legends (all double spaced).
  • Name, address, and current email for correspondence clearly indicated.


  • Cover page (p. 1) with: (a) Title; (b) full postal address; and (c) running title at foot.
  • The abstract is in English (including authors and title) and includes keywords for indexing.
  • Citation of references in text conforms to specifications in Instructions to Authors.
  • Joint authors quoted as Macharia and Mueke, i.e. not Macharia & Mueke.
  • Journal titles are given in full and in italics.
  • References in text and in reference list correspond exactly.
  • Measurements are in the (SI) metric system.


  • The size of figures conforms to specifications in Instructions for Contributors.
  • Magnifications indicated by scale bars, not in the captions.
  • Legends for figures are on a separate page.
  • Abbreviations for figures fully listed and explained.



Articles submitted to the EAJSTI should be original contributions and should not be under consideration for any other publication at the same time. If another version of the article is under consideration by another publication, or has been, or will be published elsewhere, authors should clearly indicate this at the time of submission.

Please check and make sure your final article submission contains the following items - as these are required before publication:
Author(s) names and affiliations
Correspondence email address
Abstract (250-300 words)
Keywords, (5-7)

Style guidelines

Times New Roman, 12 points. Use margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 inch).

Use bold for your article title, with an initial capital letter for the first word only.

Authors’ names
Give the names of all contributing authors on the title page exactly as you wish them to appear in the published article.

List the affiliation of each author (department, university, city, country).

Correspondence details
Please provide an institutional email address for the corresponding author.

Anonymity for peer review
Ensure your identity and that of your co-authors are not revealed in the text of your article or in your manuscript files when submitting the manuscript for review.

Abstract and keywords
Abstract not exceeding 300 words should be included. Indicate the abstract with a heading or by reducing the font size.  Please also include a selection of 5-7 keywords.

Quotations should appear in single quotes; Quotes exceeding 40 words should appear in a blockquote, i.e. they should start on a separate line and be indented.

The author's spelling preference will be upheld but where there is inconsistency, the editors will apply the most used spelling style.

No full points in acronyms, e.g. USA

One to nine in words, 10 + in figures; 10 %, except at the start of a sentence

Please indicate the level of the section headings in your article:

  • First-level headings (e.g. Introduction, Conclusion) should be in bold, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
    • Second-level headings should be in bold italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
    • Third-level headings should be in italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.
    • fourth-level headings should also be in italics, at the beginning of a paragraph.

Running heads and received dates are not required when submitting a manuscript for review.

If your article is accepted for publication, it will be copy-edited and typeset in the correct style for the journal. If you have any queries, please contact us via our Author Services website here, mentioning the reference number assigned to your manuscript.

  1. References

Journal's reference style:
The Journal uses the American Psychological Association (APA) reference style. For more information Ensure that three-quarters of the references should be within the last 5 years.

Please submit your manuscripts with completed reference lists. They should include all the necessary information: author names, titles of publication, place of publication, date of publication, and page extents. All the reference list entries should be cited in the text.

  1. Guide to using mathematical scripts and equations

Please see: 

  1. Figures and Tables

• Please provide the highest quality figure format possible. Please be sure that all imported scanned material is scanned at the appropriate resolution: 1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale, and 300 dpi for color.
• Figures must be saved separately to text. Please do not embed figures in the manuscript file.
• Files should be saved as one of the following formats: TIFF (tagged image file format), PostScript or EPS (encapsulated PostScript), and should contain all the necessary font information and the source file of the application (e.g. CorelDraw/Mac, CorelDraw/PC).
• All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labeled (e.g. Figure 1(a), Figure 1(b)).
• Figure captions must be saved separately, as part of the file containing the complete text of the manuscript, and numbered correspondingly.
• The filename for a graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2a.
• Ensure you have permission to use any figures you are reproducing from another source.
• You can submit figures in color, but please note that all papers print in black and white only, so any reference to the color in figures will be rendered meaningless in print issues.

• Indicate in the text where the tables should appear, for example by inserting [Table 1 near here].
• The actual tables should be supplied in a separate, editable file (either in MS Word or Excel).

Other illustrations




  1. Data Sharing Policy

This journal applies Taylor & Francis Basic Data Sharing Policy. Authors are encouraged to share or make open the data supporting the results of analyses presented in their paper where this does not violate the protection of human subjects or other valid privacy or security concerns.

Authors are encouraged to deposit the dataset(s) in a recognized data repository that can mint a persistent digital identifier, preferably a digital object identifier (DOI), and recognizes a long-term preservation plan. If you are uncertain about where to deposit your data, please see this information regarding repositories.

Authors are further encouraged to cite any data sets referenced in the article and provide a Data Availability Statement.

At the point of submission, you will be asked if there is a data set associated with the paper. If you reply yes, you will be asked to provide the DOI, pre-registered DOI, hyperlink, or other persistent identifier associated with the data set(s). If you have selected to provide a pre-registered DOI, please be prepared to share the reviewer URL associated with your data deposit, upon request by reviewers. Where one or multiple data sets are associated with a manuscript, these are not formally peer-reviewed as a part of the journal submission process. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure the soundness of data. Any errors in the data rest solely with the producers of the data set(s).

Data Availability Statement: If there is a data set associated with the paper, please provide information about where the data supporting the results of analyses presented in the paper can be found. Where applicable, this should include the hyperlink, DOI, or other persistent identifier associated with the data set(s). Templates are also available to support authors.

Data Deposition. If you choose to share or make the data underlying the study open, please deposit your data in a recognized data repository prior to or at the time of submission. You will be asked to provide the DOI, pre-reserved DOI, or other persistent identifiers for the data set.

  1. Supplemental material for Online Version

Supplemental material can mean anything from tables to datasets, file sets to presentations, etc. Including supplemental material with your article makes it more discoverable, and EAJSTI will implement a number of initiatives to ensure it is effectively included, or linked to, within the article abstract.

  1. Reproduction of copyright material

If you wish to include any material in your manuscript in which you do not hold copyright, you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner, prior to submission. Such material may be in the form of text, data, table, illustration, photograph, line drawing, audio clip, video clip, film still, and screenshot, and any supplemental material you propose to include. This applies to direct (verbatim or facsimile) reproduction as well as “derivative reproduction” (where you have created a new figure or table which derives substantially from a copyrighted source).

You must ensure appropriate acknowledgment is given to the permission granted to you for reuse by the copyright holder in each figure or table caption. You are solely responsible for any fees which the copyright holder may charge for reuse.

The reproduction of short extracts of text, excluding poetry and song lyrics, for the purposes of criticism may be possible without formal permission on the basis that the quotation is reproduced accurately and full attribution is given.

For further information and FAQs on the reproduction of copyright material, please consult our guide:
9. Copyright and authors' rights

To assure the integrity, dissemination, and protection against copyright infringement of published articles, you will be asked to assign us, via a Publishing Agreement, the copyright in your article. Your Article is defined as the final, definitive, and citable Version of Record, and includes: (a) the accepted manuscript in its final form, including the abstract, text, bibliography, and all accompanying tables, illustrations, data; and (b) any supplemental material hosted by EAJSTI. Our Publishing Agreement with you will constitute the entire agreement and the sole understanding between you and us; no amendment, addendum, or other communication will be taken into account when interpreting your and our rights and obligations under this Agreement.

Copyright policy is explained in detail: