Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Lumpy Skin Disease Seropositivity in Tanga and Pwani Regions in Tanzania

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Fredy Titus Makoga
Yasin R. Nassoro
Nicko Z. Kafyulilo
Charles M. Ngassa
Jelly Changa
Stella Bitanyi
Emma P. Njau


Lumpy skin disease; seroprevalence; cattle, risk factors; Tanzania


Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an important viral disease of cattle and water buffalo affecting all breeds and all ages. Presently, the disease is among the global threats to the cattle industry due to its rapid spread and high morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tanga and Pwani region in Tanzania from December 2022 to February 2023 to determine seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with LSD serostatus. Sera from 200 unvaccinated cattle from 88 herds were tested for the presence of Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) antibodies using capripox double antigen multispecies commercial ELISA kit (ID. vet Innovative Diagnostics-France). Assessment of potential risk factors for LSD serostatus was achieved using a pretested standard questionnaire administered to the herd owner or designated representative. Descriptive statistics and chi-square, were used to analyse data. Anti- LSD antibodies were detected with an overall seroprevalence of 13.5% (CI 9.06-19.03) and 22.73% (CI =14.47- 32.89) at animal and herd levels, respectively. Seropositivity varied significantly between age categories of cattle (χ2=4, p =0.0444), size of the herds (χ2 = 12.65, p =0.0004), grazing system (χ2 =7.3, p= 0.0069), location (χ2= 6.54, p=0.0152), introduction of new animals in the herd (χ2 =9.4, p=0.0021) and breeds of cattle (χ2 =9.4, p=0.0021). Serostatus also varied significantly between herds where breeding bulls are shared and herds where breeding bulls are not shared. This is the first study of its kind in Tanzania to detect   LSDV antibodies in unvaccinated cattle using serological technique in Tanzania. This study provides baseline information on LSD for planning further studies that can help in implementation of effective control measures.

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