Antibiotic profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococci species isolated from raw camel milk from Garissa County, Kenya

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Elly Kirwa
Gabriel Oluga Aboge
Timothy Elias Maitho
Christine Minoo Mbindyo
Tequiero Okumu Abuom
Alfred Omwando Mainga

Keywords

Coagulase negative Staphylococcus; Staphylococcus aureus; Multidrug resistance; camel

Abstract

The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria in clinically challenging situations is a global concern. Staphylococcus resistance poses a threat to available therapeutic agents in management of camel diseases. S. aureus is often isolated from mastitic camel milk. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) can be pathogenic in humans and animals. This cross-sectional study investigated the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Staphylococci species in raw camel milk from Garissa County, Kenya. A total of 231 raw camel milk samples from healthy camels were collected. Disk diffusion was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Bacteria were revived in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW). Staphylococcus isolates were cultured on Mannitol Salt agar (MSA) and Blood Agar (BA). Coagulase and catalase tests were used to biochemically characterize the isolates. Antibiotic disks were placed on Mueller Hinton Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and diameters of zones inhibition measured. The readings were recorded as either susceptible, intermediate, or resistant based on the interpretative breakpoints by the veterinary Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antimicrobial agents tested included; Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Cephalexin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Cefoxitin, Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol. Out of the 231 raw camel milk samples cultured, 52.8% (122/231) Staphylococci isolates were recovered. Among the Staphylococci isolates 83.6% (102) were S. aureus and 16.4% (20) were CoNS. Overall, 83 (68%) isolates were catalase positive and 122 (91.7%) showed β-haemolysis on BA culture. Highest resistance was observed against Cephalexin (81.9%) and Streptomycin (72.1%) while the lowest resistance was seen against Chloramphenicol (1.6%) and Tetracycline (3.3%). MRSA and MRCoNS were reported at 9.8% and 15% of the isolates respectively. MDR was recorded in 43.4% of the isolates resistant to at least 3 or more antimicrobial groups while 39.3% isolates were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial tested.   In conclusion, the study showed that CoNS and S